Transcriptional augmentation: modulation of gene expression by scaffold/matrix-attached regions (S/MAR elements)

Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2000;10(1):73-90.


For a long time S/MARs could only be characterized by the assays in vitro that led to their detection. Only recently a number of biological activities emerged that are common to most or all S/MARs that are detected by the classic procedures. This review focuses on the phenomenon of transcriptional augmentation that is found for genomically anchored or episomal genes and on a group of partially overlapping activities that are suited to maintain an episomal status. Further, it is attempted to correlate properties of the S/MAR-scaffold interaction with prominent or prototype protein binding partners.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chromatin / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Nuclear Matrix / metabolism*
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Plasmids
  • Protein Binding
  • Transcription, Genetic*


  • Chromatin
  • Nuclear Proteins