The purpose of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of breath-hold contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in Takayasu arteritis. Thirty patients suspected of having Takayasu arteritis were examined with MR angiography and conventional angiography. Takayasu arteritis was diagnosed in 20 of these patients. MR angiography was performed using a 1.5-T system after bolus injection of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadodiamide. MR angiography clearly depicted various vascular lesions in the aorta and its major branches in all 20 patients with Takayasu arteritis. It also depicted pulmonary artery lesions in 10 (50%) of the 20 patients. MR angiography accurately depicted 323 (98%) of 330 arteries, but 7 (2%) stenotic arteries were overestimated as occluded. The sensitivity and specificity of MR angiography for the diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis were both 100%. Breath-hold contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography clearly depicts various vascular lesions in both the systemic and pulmonary arteries in Takayasu arteritis, thus allowing a definitive diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis.