The spectral sensitivities of the middle- and long-wavelength-sensitive cones derived from measurements in observers of known genotype

Vision Res. 2000;40(13):1711-37. doi: 10.1016/s0042-6989(00)00021-3.


The spectral sensitivities of middle- (M-) and long- (L-) wavelength-sensitive cones have been measured in dichromats of known genotype: M-cone sensitivities in nine protanopes, and L-cone sensitivities in 20 deuteranopes. We have used these dichromat cone spectral sensitivities, along with new luminous efficiency determinations, and existing spectral sensitivity and color matching data from normal trichromats, to derive estimates of the human M- and L-cone spectral sensitivities for 2 and 10 degrees dia. central targets, and an estimate of the photopic luminosity function [V(lambda)] for 2 degrees dia. targets, which we refer to as V(2)*(lambda). These new estimates are consistent with dichromatic and trichromatic spectral sensitivities and color matches.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Algorithms
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Color Perception / genetics*
  • Color Vision Defects / genetics*
  • Color Vision Defects / physiopathology
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Photometry
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells / physiopathology*
  • Retinal Pigments / genetics
  • Retinal Pigments / physiology
  • X Chromosome / genetics


  • Retinal Pigments