STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) family, consisting of seven members, is involved in cytokine signal transduction. Biological roles of each STAT family protein have now been elucidated through studies of gene targeted mice. Stat1 knockout mice are defective in interferon-mediated functions. Stat4 and Stat6 knockout mice show defective responses to IL-12 and IL-4, respectively. Analyses of Stat5a and Stat5b knockout mice reveal important roles in prolactin-mediated mammary gland development and growth hormone-mediated induction of sexual dimorphism, respectively. Conditional knockout study of Stat3 demonstrates its critical roles in cytokine-mediated functions in several tissues, including T cells, macrophages, skin, and mammary gland.