Atrial arrhythmias occur frequently after cardiac surgery. This article discusses the incidence of postoperative atrial arrhythmia as well as its prognosis, potential mechanisms of pathogenesis, and management. Prophylactic therapy for postoperative atrial arrhythmia is recommended because of the frequency of occurrence and the ease with which therapies can often be implemented. Treatments with pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic modalities are described. Management strategies for atrial arrhythmias that occur postoperatively, including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic measures as well as anticoagulation recommendations, are discussed.