We evaluated the plasma concentrations of cytokines and platelet-derived microparticles in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans and studied the effect of cytokines on platelet-derived microparticle generation under high shear stress. Interleukin-6 levels peaked at 48 hours after vascular surgery, while thrombopoietin started to increase at 24 to 48 hours postoperatively and peaked on the seventh day. Platelet activation markers were increased in the arteriosclerosis obliterans patients preoperatively. Levels of P-selectin and CD63 both increased further, peaking at 6 to 24 hours postoperatively. Platelet-derived microparticle levels were also increased preoperatively. At 6 hours postoperatively, the plasma level of platelet-derived microparticles was significantly increased. Plasma platelet-derived microparticle level was lower at 12 hours but only returned to the preoperative value at 7 days after grafting. There was a difference in the platelet-derived microparticle level at 7 days between patients with or without antiplatelet therapy (cilostazol). The effect of cytokines on platelet activation under high shear stress was also studied. Interleukin-6 and thrombopoietin enhanced both P-selectin expression and platelet-derived microparticle generation under high shear stress. These results suggest that platelet-derived microparticles are released by platelet activation after vascular grafting when certain cytokines increase under high shear stress and that antiplatelet therapy may reduce platelet-derived microparticle levels postoperatively.