Objective: To study the influence of parboiling and the severity of the process on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to rice in type 2 diabetes. Moreover, to examine changes in starch structure related to parboiling, which may affect the metabolic responses and digestibility.
Design: Nine type 2 diabetic subjects ingested four test meals: white bread (WB) and three meals of cooked polished rice of the same variety being non-parboiled (NP), mildly traditionally parboiled (TP) and severely pressure parboiled (PP). The participants ingested the test meals (50 g available carbohydrates) on separate occasions after an overnight fast.
Setting: Outpatient clinic, Dept. Endocrinology and Metabolism, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
Results: All three rice samples elicited lower postprandial plasma glucose response (NP: 335+/-43; TP: 274+/-53; PP: 231+/-37 mmol/1*180 min.; means+/-s.e.m.) than white bread (626+/-80; P<0.001), within rice samples PP tended to be lower than NP (P=0.07). The glycaemic indices were: NP: 55+/-5, TP: 46+/-8 and PP: 39+/-6, and lower for PP than NP (P<0.05). The insulin responses were similar for the three rice meals, which were all lower than that to white bread (P<0.001). Differential scanning calorimetry showed the presence of amylose-lipid complexes in all rice samples and of retrograded amylopectin in PP. Amylose retrogradation was not detected in any of the rice samples.
Conclusions: All rice test meals were low-glycaemic in type 2 diabetic subjects. There was no effect of TP on glycaemic index, whereas PP reduced the glycaemic index by almost 30% compared to NP.
Sponsorship: The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Aarhus University Hospital, Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA), Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the 'Konsul Johannes Fogh-Nielsens og Fru Ella Fogh-Nielsens Legat' foundation.