Ligand-independent Activation of Estrogen Receptor Function by 3, 3'-diindolylmethane in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Jul 15;60(2):167-77. doi: 10.1016/s0006-2952(00)00307-5.


3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM), a major in vivo product of acid-catalyzed oligomerization of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), is a promising anticancer agent present in vegetables of the Brassica genus. We investigated the effects of DIM on estrogen-regulated events in human breast cancer cells and found that DIM was a promoter-specific activator of estrogen receptor (ER) function in the absence of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). DIM weakly inhibited the E(2)-induced proliferation of ER-containing MCF-7 cells and induced proliferation of these cells in the absence of steroid, by approximately 60% of the E(2) response. DIM had little effect on proliferation of ER-deficient MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that it is not generally toxic at these concentrations. Although DIM did not bind to the ER in this concentration range, as shown by a competitive ER binding assay, it activated the ER to a DNA-binding species. DIM increased the level of transcripts for the endogenous pS2 gene and activated the estrogen-responsive pERE-vit-CAT and pS2-tk-CAT reporter plasmids in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells. In contrast, DIM failed to activate transcription of the simple E(2)- and diethylstilbesterol-responsive reporter construct pATC2. The estrogen antagonist ICI 182780 (7alpha-[9-[(4,4,5,5, 5-pentafluoropentyl)sulfonyl]nonyl]-estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3, 17beta-diol) was effective against DIM-induced transcriptional activity of the pERE-vit-CAT reporter, which further supports the hypothesis that DIM is acting through the ER. We demonstrated that ligand-independent activation of the ER in MCF-7 cells could be produced following treatment with the D1 dopamine receptor agonist SKF-82958 [(+/-)6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4, 5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepinehydrobromide]. We also demonstrated that the agonist effects of SKF-82958 and DIM, but not of E(2), could be blocked by co-treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 (N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide). These results have uncovered a promoter-specific, ligand-independent activation of ER signaling for DIM that may require activation by PKA, and suggest that this major I3C product may be a selective activator of ER function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Binding, Competitive
  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Cell Division / drug effects
  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Estradiol / metabolism
  • Estrogen Receptor Modulators / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Indoles / pharmacology*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Receptors, Estrogen / agonists*
  • Receptors, Estrogen / genetics
  • Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Anticarcinogenic Agents
  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Estrogen Receptor Modulators
  • Indoles
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Estradiol
  • 3,3'-diindolylmethane