Objective: bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is performed infrequently in Japan. We conducted this study to identify Japanese attitudes toward the performance of bystander CPR.
Methods: participants were asked about their willingness to perform CPR with varying scenarios and CPR techniques (mouth-to-mouth ventilation plus chest compression (MMV plus CC) versus chest compression alone (CC)).
Results: a total of 1302/1355 individuals completed the questionnaire, including high school students, teachers, emergency medical technicians, medical nurses, and medical students. About 2% of high school students, 3% of teachers, 26% of emergency medical technicians, 3% of medical nurses and 16% of medical students claimed they would 'definitely' perform MMV plus CC on a stranger. However, 21-72% claimed they would prefer the alternative of performing CC alone. Respondents claimed their unwillingness to perform MMV is not due to the fear of contracting a communicable disease, but the lack of confidence in their ability to perform CPR properly.
Conclusion: in all categories of respondents, willingness to perform MMV plus CC for a stranger was disappointingly low. Better training in MMV together with teaching awareness that CC alone can be given should be instituted to maximize the number of potential providers of CPR in the community, even in communities where the incidence of HIV is very low.