Taxonomic studies were performed on an unusual oral Streptococcus strain isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. The isolates were alpha-haemolytic, bile-tolerant, aesculin-hydrolytic and unable to grow in 6.5% NaCl. They fermented lactose, sucrose and trehalose. They were distinguished from other recognized species of oral and viridans streptococci by several biochemical characteristics and by Lancefield's group antigen, as well as by unique DNA-DNA hybridization characteristics. 16S rDNA sequence studies confirmed the genealogical distinctiveness of the species. The results of the study demonstrated that the isolates represented a new species of the oral and viridans streptococci. The name Streptococcus orisratti sp. nov. is proposed for the new species. The type strain is A63T (= ATCC 700640T).