Left-right axis malformations in man and mouse

Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000 Jun;10(3):257-61. doi: 10.1016/s0959-437x(00)00085-x.


The study of left-right axis malformations in man and mouse has greatly advanced understanding of the mechanisms regulating vertebrate left-right axis formation. Recently, the roles of the TGF-beta family, Sonic hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor signaling, homeobox genes, and cilia in left-right axis determination have been more clearly defined. The identification of genes and environmental factors affecting left-right axis formation has important implications for understanding human laterality defects.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Embryonic Induction
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors / physiology
  • Genes, Homeobox
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Proteins / physiology
  • Situs Inversus / genetics*
  • Trans-Activators*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology


  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Proteins
  • SHH protein, human
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors