Short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are prebiotics, which escape digestion in the small intestine and are fermented by the colonic microflora into short-chain fatty acids. Recently, we found that the daily consumption of 20 g FOS decreased basal hepatic glucose production in healthy subjects without any effect on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the chronic ingestion of FOS on plasma lipid and glucose concentrations, hepatic glucose production and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics. Type 2 diabetic volunteers (n = 10; 6 men, 4 women) received either 20 g/d FOS or sucrose for 4 wk in a double-blind crossover design. FOS did not modify fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations or basal hepatic glucose production. The plasma glucose response to a fixed exogenous insulin bolus did not differ at the end of the two periods. Erythrocyte insulin binding also did not differ. Serum triacylglycerol, total and HDL cholesterol, free fatty acid, apolipoproteins A1 and B and lipoprotein (a) concentrations were not modified by the chronic ingestion of FOS. We conclude that 4 wk of 20 g/d of FOS had no effect on glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetics.