Effects of systematic clinical supervision on psychiatric nurses' sense of coherence, creativity, work-related strain, job satisfaction and view of the effects from clinical supervision: a pre-post test design

J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 1999 Oct;6(5):371-81. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2850.1999.00235.x.


There are few investigations of the type and the outcome of interventions aimed at supporting nurses caring for psychiatric patients. Therefore a prepost-test design study was used in which 22 psychiatric nurses, on a general psychiatric ward were examined before, during and after one year of systematic clinical supervision combined with supervised documented, planned, individualized care. The methods used were the Sense of Coherence scale (SOC), the Creative Climate Questionnaire (CCQ), the Work-Related Strain Inventory and 34 statements from the Satisfaction with Nursing Care and Work Questionnaire (SNCW). In addition 14 statements were developed to evaluate the nurses' view of the effects from clinical supervision. The baseline values for the CCQ indicated a stagnant organization and a high score in the conflict dimension indicated personal and emotional tensions within the organization. The intervention led to a significantly increased creative and innovative climate in the dimensions for trust, idea time and reduced conflicts. However, the organizational climate remained stagnant. The nurses' view of the effects from clinical supervision also increased significantly. There were no significant changes in the nurses' SNCW, WRSI or SOC score. The result of the correlation analysis indicated that a strong sense of coherence was related to low work-related strain but not to unsatisfactory working conditions/milieu. The results gave some support to the idea that systematic clinical supervision and supervised nursing care plans constitute one type of support strategy that improves creativity and the organizational climate. It may, not, however, buffer for interpersonal problems. Further research is required to explore the need for effects of various support systems depending on the circumstances in the organization.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attitude of Health Personnel*
  • Burnout, Professional / psychology*
  • Clinical Competence / standards*
  • Creativity*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Job Satisfaction*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nursing Evaluation Research
  • Nursing Staff, Hospital / organization & administration
  • Nursing Staff, Hospital / psychology*
  • Nursing, Supervisory / standards*
  • Psychiatric Nursing*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires