Improved understanding of the pharmacodynamics and toxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics has resulted in the study of once-daily dosing regimens. Although studies have suggested a therapeutic advantage and possibly a decrease in toxicity with once-daily administration, these effects have been modest. The cost savings associated with once-daily aminoglycoside administration, however, makes this approach appealing. Although a syndrome of fever, tachycardia, hypotension, and rigors has been associated with once-daily dosing of gentamicin, this appears to have been the result of impurities in the antibiotic from a single offshore supplier. This syndrome has not been associated with other aminoglycoside antibiotics, and the FDA has now withdrawn its recommendation that once-daily aminoglycoside use be avoided. As with any medical regimen, the decision to use once-daily dosing of aminoglycoside agents must take into account special patient characteristics and the disease state being treated. Although once-daily dosing appears effective in limited studies in children, in individuals with neutropenia, and in individuals with cystic fibrosis, its role in gram-positive coccal endocarditis and in individuals with altered volumes of distribution remains uncertain. Further data are needed to clarify the role of once-daily dosing in these situations.