Early diagnosis and treatment of moyamoya disease in children is essential to minimize residual mental and physiologic deficits. Current treatment of childhood moyamoya disease in Japan, preoperative evaluation of perfusion reserve as a surgical indication, and the role of noninvasive follow-up by magnetic resonance angiography are reported. Approximately 20% of children with definite moyamoya disease were observed or treated medically. Among surgical procedures, single indirect bypass surgery was used in approximately 30% of all patients; combinations of direct and indirect bypass surgery, 20%; and multiple-indirect bypass surgery, 18%. Both adequate understanding of the primary condition and determination of optimal treatment, including specific operative procedures, required evaluation of cerebral circulation and metabolism. Surgical indications included reduced perfusion reserve in affected brain by positron emission tomography or single photon emission tomography with administration of acetazolamide or a CO2 load. Postoperative improvements of cerebral perfusion reserve show better correlation with disappearance of ischemic attacks than does angiographically demonstrated collateral formation. Follow-up evaluation with magnetic resonance angiography has advantages over conventional angiography because it is noninvasive and avoids general anesthesia.