Autosomal recessive posterior column ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (PCARP) is a movement disorder that was genetically mapped to a disease locus (AXPC1) on chromosome 1q32-q31 in an inbred population of Dutch-German ancestry in the continental United States. We performed genetic linkage analysis and haplotype reconstruction on a different family from Spain with an identical phenotype to determine if the neurologic signs of an early-onset ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and a sensory neuropathy also mapped to the AXPC1 locus. The disease phenotype was linked in the candidate interval with a maximum lod score of 3.56 at a recombination fraction of 0.0 for locus D1S414. Haplotypes were discordant and suggested that the disease mutation arose independently from at least two populations. These results refine the classification of early-onset ataxia, abrogate a founder effect for this recessive disorder, and provide evidence that PCARP is a distinct, homogeneous, clinical, and genetic disorder.