Selected topics related to occupational exposures

Dis Mon. 2000 Apr;46(4):240-322. doi: 10.1016/s0011-5029(00)90033-6.


The auditory and nonauditory effects of noise can be quite profound, affecting approximately 15 to 20 million Americans. As with most occupational toxins, recognition and careful assessment of noise exposure are the foundation on which preventive measures and treatment are based. Dosimeters can measure noise exposure over specific time periods. Pure tone air conduction audiometric monitoring should be performed on an annual basis in workers at risk for significant noise exposure. Occupational infectious disease involves far more than hepatitis and tuberculosis. Periodic fever, dermatologic manifestations and other symptoms peculiar to a specific disease may be important clues to an occupationally related exposure. Whereas strict attention to hand washing and isolation are cornerstones of prevention, use of protective gear is mandated in certain situations. Zoonotic disease, agriculture exposure, water transmission, and biologic contaminants in buildings can be important but subtle exposures sources. Recognition of these infections often depends on the alertness of the primary care giver.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Communicable Disease Control / methods
  • Communicable Diseases / etiology*
  • Dermatitis, Occupational / etiology*
  • Dermatitis, Occupational / prevention & control
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Epidemiological Monitoring
  • Hazardous Substances / adverse effects
  • Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced / etiology*
  • Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Liver Diseases / etiology*
  • Liver Diseases / prevention & control
  • Mass Screening / methods
  • Maximum Allowable Concentration
  • Noise, Occupational / adverse effects
  • Noise, Occupational / prevention & control
  • Occupational Diseases / diagnosis
  • Occupational Diseases / epidemiology
  • Occupational Diseases / etiology*
  • Occupational Diseases / prevention & control
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Occupational Exposure / prevention & control
  • Occupational Health
  • Population Surveillance / methods
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration
  • Workers' Compensation


  • Hazardous Substances