This study is part of an effort to evaluate efficacy of the novel agent MGI 114 (HMAF) against tumors resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. MGI 114 is a novel semisynthetic anticancer agent currently in chemotherapeutic phase II trials to evaluate activity against various solid tumors. Previous studies indicate MGI 114 was active against human MDR1/gp170+ solid tumor xenografts. Recent evidence suggests overexpression of the MRP protein may also be clinically relevant to development of drug resistance in solid tumors. We evaluated the efficacy of MGI 114 against a human MRP+ lung carcinoma xenograft. Parent MV522 lung carcinoma cells were transfected with a MRP cDNA expression vector and resistant cells selected by exposure to vinblastine (30-fold resistance). Analysis of resistant clones indicated 20- to 40-fold increases in expression of both MRP mRNA and MRP protein. Administration of MGI 114 at the maximum tolerated dose (7 mg/kg, 5 x/week for 3 weeks) to MRP tumor-bearing mice demonstrated this novel agent was active against MRP+ tumors and significantly extended their lifespan (p<0.001). In contrast, other cytotoxic agents had minimal activity against this MRP+ xenograft. These results indicate MGI 114 should retain activity in vivo against MRP+ tumor types. The development of this MRP+ xenograft model, in conjunction with the parent MV522 and MDR1/gp170+ xenograft models, will be useful for screening new classes of agents for activity against multidrug-resistant tumors.