Cloning, characterization, and mapping of the gene encoding the human G protein gamma 2 subunit

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Jun 7;272(2):610-5. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.2000.2832.


G proteins play vital roles in cellular responses to external signals. The specificity of G protein-receptor interaction is mediated mostly by the gamma-subunit and the individual members of the gamma-subunit multigene family would hence be expected to each have a particular expression profile. In an experiment designed to isolate genes expressed predominantly in human testis we identified a cDNA fragment corresponding to the gamma2 gene. Although the protein sequence of the gamma2 subunit has previously been published, the cDNA sequence, expression pattern, genomic structure, and localisation of the human GNG2 gene have not been described. We report the complete sequence of the GNG2 cDNA which is 1066 bp long and contains an open reading frame encoding a protein of 71 amino acids. This protein is 100% homologous to the bovine, mouse, and rat G protein gamma2 subunit. The gene structure is very similar to that of other Ggamma-subunit genes in that there are two introns, one located in the 5' UTR and the other within the ORF. We show that this gene is expressed in a range of foetal tissues as well as adult testis, adrenal gland, brain, white blood cells and lung but not in adult liver, muscle, sperm, prostate gland nor in the testes of two different infertile patients. There is evidence that GNG2 is expressed in malignant tissues. Using two independent methods, we have mapped the human GNG2 gene to chromosome 14q21.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 / genetics*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Exons / genetics*
  • Expressed Sequence Tags
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Hybrid Cells
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Introns / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Physical Chromosome Mapping
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid


  • GNG2 protein, human
  • RNA, Messenger
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins