Paediatric asthma is a major clinical concern worldwide and represents a huge burden on family and society. It accounts for a large number of lost school days and may deprive the child of both academic achievement and social interaction. Childhood asthma also places strain on healthcare resources as a result of doctor and hospital visits and the cost of treatment. The prevalence of asthma varies worldwide, possibly because of different exposure to respiratory infection, indoor and outdoor pollution, and diet. Certain risk factors appear to predispose children to developing asthma and atopic disease, including incidence and severity of wheezing, atopy, maternal smoking, and number of fever episodes. This paper discusses the burden, prevalence, and risk factors associated with paediatric asthma.