Data from 2,764 Rottweiler dogs born from 1987 to 1996 were analyzed with a Restricted Maximum Likelihood procedure using a mixed linear animal model to obtain variance component estimates for hip and elbow dysplasia. The data included 2,764 hip dysplasia and 2,278 elbow dysplasia records. Hip joints were scored as normal (0), borderline (1), slight (2), moderate (3), and severe (4, 4.5, and 5) hip dysplasia. Elbow joints were graded normal or borderline (0), slight (1), moderate (2), and severe (3) elbow dysplasia. The mean for the hip scores was 1.07 and for the elbow scores .60. Environmental effects influencing hip dysplasia were age, birth year, birth year x season interaction, and experience of the veterinarian responsible for x-raying the dog. For elbow dysplasia, statistically significant effects were age, birth year, sex of the dog, and panelist responsible for each screening. Estimates of heritability for hip and elbow dysplasia were .58 +/- .04 and .31 +/- .04, respectively, with a genetic correlation of .37 +/- .08 between the traits. Genetic improvement of almost one genetic standard deviation was observed in both traits during the 10 yr covered by the data.