Surface-displayed viral antigens on Salmonella carrier vaccine

Nat Biotechnol. 2000 Jun;18(6):645-8. doi: 10.1038/76494.


We have developed a recombinant live oral vaccine using the ice-nucleation protein (Inp) from Pseudomonas syringae to display viral antigens on the surface of Salmonella spp. Fusion proteins containing viral antigens were expressed in the oral vaccine strain, Salmonella typhi Ty21a. Surface localization was verified by immunoblotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The immunogenicity of surface-displayed viral antigens on the recombinant live vaccine strain was assessed in mice inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally. Inoculation resulted in significantly higher serum antibody level than those induced by viral antigens expressed intracellularly. Thus, this multivalent mucosal live vaccine may provide an effective means for inducing mucosal or systemic immune responses against multiple viral antigens.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Viral / immunology*
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins / chemistry*
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins / immunology*
  • Bacterial Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Bacterial Vaccines / genetics
  • Bacterial Vaccines / immunology*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Hepacivirus / genetics
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / genetics
  • Immunoblotting
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Infusions, Parenteral
  • Liver / virology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mutagenesis
  • Salmonella typhi / immunology*
  • Spleen / virology
  • Time Factors
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / genetics
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology*


  • Antigens, Viral
  • Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Vaccines, Synthetic
  • ice nucleation protein