14-3-3 proteins: structure, function, and regulation

Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2000:40:617-47. doi: 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.40.1.617.


The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved regulatory molecules expressed in all eukaryotic cells. A striking feature of the 14-3-3 proteins is their ability to bind a multitude of functionally diverse signaling proteins, including kinases, phosphatases, and transmembrane receptors. This plethora of interacting proteins allows 14-3-3 to play important roles in a wide range of vital regulatory processes, such as mitogenic signal transduction, apoptotic cell death, and cell cycle control. In this review, we examine the structural basis for 14-3-3-ligand interactions, proposed functions of 14-3-3 in various signaling pathways, and emerging views of mechanisms that regulate 14-3-3 actions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle
  • Dimerization
  • Humans
  • Phosphorylation
  • Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Proteins / chemistry*
  • Proteins / physiology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase*
  • cdc25 Phosphatases / physiology


  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Proteins
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
  • cdc25 Phosphatases