Seroepidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae was determined for 1000 nonrepetitive K. pneumoniae isolates collected by a medical center in Taiwan during 1993-1997. Of these, 630 isolates (63%) were from community-acquired infections; the rest were from hospital-acquired infections. The isolates were serotyped according to capsular antigen by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis. About 77% were typeable. Serotypes K1 and K2 accounted for 21.7% and 9.3% of the isolates, respectively, followed by K57 (5.1%), K54 (4.2%), K21 (3. 3%), and K16 (3%). The frequency of serotype K1 among bacteremic isolates (30.8%) far exceeded that reported by other investigators worldwide. Molecular typing of random K1 isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed several different pulsotypes, suggesting a nonclonal spread. This study indicates that a Klebsiella vaccine developed in Europe is not optimal for use in Taiwan because it does not contain the most predominant serotypes-K1, K54, and K57.