Human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors. From drug design to clinical studies

Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 1997 Sep 15;27(2-3):215-233. doi: 10.1016/s0169-409x(97)00044-6.


The discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors is an example in which pharmacokinetic evaluation was implemented early in the discovery phase to obtain optimal pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties. Currently, three HIV protease inhibitors, saquinavir, indinavir and ritonavir are clinically available. As a family, these HIV protease inhibitors are characterized pharmacologically by their ability to inhibit the viral protease enzyme. Pharmacokinetically, they are quite different due to their dissimilarity in physicochemical properties. Bioavailability appears to be limited with saquinavir, but not with indinavir and ritonavir. Although all three drugs are metabolized extensively by cytochrome P-450, saquinavir and indinavir are high clearance drugs while ritonavir is a low clearance drug. Despite their significant differences in elimination clearance, all three HIV proteases are given at high oral doses (600-800 mg) either twice or three times daily. These HIV protease inhibitors show superior therapeutic activity and a more favorable safety profile than those reported for the established reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, the potential for interactions with other drugs metabolized by the CYP 3A4 isoform appears to be considerable. In addition, repeated administration of enzyme inducers results in a substantial decrease of plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors. Therefore, co-administration of drugs, such as rifampicin and rifabutin, must be avoided. HIV protease inhibitors are promising in the treatment of AIDS. Although they are not a cure, they can significantly inhibit that viral replication and improve the quality of life for people who have HIV infection.