Due to recent advances, numerous bioactive peptides are now available in large quantities. Administering these substances by the oral route appears as a formidable challenge due to their insufficient stability in the gastrointestinal tract and their poor absorption pattern. Several approaches have been investigated to improve their oral bioavailability. Among them, the use of polymeric particulate delivery systems (microparticles and nanoparticles) represents a promising concept. Encapsulating or incorporating peptides in particles should at least protect these substances against degradation and, in some cases, also enhance their absorption. The aim of this paper is to review the principal studies where peptide-loaded particles were administered by the oral route. The preparation methods and in vitro trials are presented and in vivo results are discussed with emphasis placed on the peptide blood levels reached or on the biological effects observed. Whether or not intact particles can be taken up and translocated to the systemic circulation is not the aim of this review.