Development of an increasingly detailed understanding of the eucaryotic mitochondrial ATP synthase requires a detailed knowledge of the stoichiometry, structure and function of F(0) sector subunits in the contexts of the proton channel and the stator stalk. Still to be resolved are the precise locations and roles of other supernumerary subunits present in mitochondrial ATP synthase complexes, but not found in the bacterial or chloroplast enzymes. The highly developed system of molecular genetic manipulation available in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a unicellular eucaryote, permits testing for gene function based on the effects of gene disruption or deletion. In addition, the genes encoding ATP synthase subunits can be manipulated to introduce specific amino acids at desired positions within a subunit, or to add epitope or affinity tags at the C-terminus, enabling questions of stoichiometry, structure and function to be addressed. Newly emerging technologies, such as fusions of subunits with GFP are being applied to probe the dynamic interactions within mitochondrial ATP synthase, between ATP synthase complexes, and between ATP synthase and other mitochondrial enzyme complexes.