This study used the Conservation of Resources stress model to examine the role of psychosocial resource loss in the aftermath of Midwest flooding. Questionnaires were distributed through churches and completed by 131 adults in flood-affected communities 6 weeks and 6 months after the flood's crest. Frequent psychosocial losses included losses of routine, sense of control, sense of optimism, accomplishing goals, and time with loved ones. Path analysis revealed that psychosocial resource loss mediated the effects of flood exposure on both psychological distress and physical symptoms at 6 months post-flood. The findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent psychosocial resource loss may reduce the long-term effects of disasters.