Object: The goal of this study was to determine and compare imaging correlates in pediatric patients who underwent successful or failed endoscopic third ventriculostomies (ETVs). To this end, the authors measured ventricular size changes and the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow void in both groups of children following ETV.
Methods: Images obtained in children with hydrocephalus immediately before and at least 30 days after having undergone ETV were reviewed by four independent observers (two blinded and two nonblinded). Each observer independently measured the frontal and occipital horn ratio ([FOR], a reliable and valid measure of ventricular size) and provided a subjective assessment of the presence of a flow void at the ETV site, the degree of periventricular edema, and the amount of CSF over the cerebral hemispheres. There were 29 children whose mean age was 6.6 years at the time of ETV and who had a mean postoperative follow-up period lasting 1.6 years. Postoperatively, the mean reduction in ventricular size (as measured using the FOR) was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3-11%) in cases that were deemed failures (eight patients) and 16% (95% CI 12-20%) in clinically successful cases (21 patients). This reduction was significantly greater in cases of clinical success compared with those that were deemed failures (p = 0.03, t-test). There were no substantial differences between blinded and nonblinded assessments. Flow void was present in 94% of successes and absent in 75% of failures (p = 0.01, Fisher's exact test). The other subjective assessments were not significantly different between the groups of successes and failures.
Conclusions: Ventricular size appears to be somewhat reduced in both groups of patients who underwent clinically successful and failed ETV; however, the reduction is significantly greater among clinically successful cases. The presence of a flow void also appears to correlate with clinical success and its absence with clinical failure.