This study investigates the applicability of the novel antioxidant protein, peroxiredoxin (Prx) I as a marker for tumor status in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Samples from 53 patients with SCC in the oral cavity were examined by immunohistochemistry. Correlations between the expression level of Prx I and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the clinical features of tumors, and their histopathological classifications were statistically analyzed. Cases exhibiting low Prx I expression level included significantly more with larger tumor mass cases (T-category, P=0.004), positive lymph node metastasis (N-category, P=0.015), advanced stage (P=0.002), and poorly differentiated cells (P=0.020). There was no significant difference between Prx I expression and the other indices.