Biochemical, molecular chemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on an unknown Gram-positive, catalase-negative, chain-forming coccus isolated from the urine of a patient suffering from cystitis. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the organism is a member of the 'pyogenic subgroup' of the genus Streptococcus and has a close affinity with Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus canis. The unknown coccus was, however, readily distinguished from these species and other streptococci by biochemical tests and electrophoretic analysis of whole-cell proteins. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as a new species of the genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus urinalis sp. nov. The type strain of Streptococcus urinalis is CCUG 41590T.