Deciduoid mesothelioma is the designation given to an unusual morphologic variant of epithelial mesothelioma that closely simulates exuberant ectopic decidual reaction. Because all four previously reported cases involved the peritoneum and occurred in young women without a history of asbestos exposure, it was suggested that deciduoid mesothelioma was a subtype of epithelial mesothelioma characterized by its unique morphology, that it affects a distinct patient population, and that it is unrelated etiologically to asbestos. The author reports four cases of mesothelioma with deciduoid features, all of which originated in the pleura. Three of the patients were men and one was a woman. Their ages ranged from 46 to 78 years (mean age, 67 yrs). Two of the patients had a history of asbestos exposure. These findings indicate that this morphologic variant of mesothelioma is not limited to a specific patient population nor is it restricted to the peritoneum.