Neuromyelitis optical (NMO) or Devic's disease is an uncommon clinical syndrome associating unilateral or bilateral optic neuritis and transverse myelitis within about 8 weeks. Usually reported in adults, childhood cases constitute a distinctive clinical entity with good visual and neurological prognosis without long-term recurrence or sequelae. The pathogenesis is explained by autoimmune demyelinization triggered by a viral disease. Some authors suggest an infectious cause. The CT scan is usually negative while MRI shows nonspecific small foci in the white matter. Unlike multiple sclerosis, the main differential diagnosis, in NMO the cerebrospinal fluid may show pleocytosis with elevated protein level without an oligoclonal band. We report a case of neuromyelitis optica occurring in a 4-year-old child following a flu-like syndrome. Clinical outcome was favorable with a short course of high-dose corticosteroids.