The purpose of the study is to evaluate the pattern of noncompliance in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using home visit supply inventories. Ninety-two patients were enrolled at the start of dialysis. Noncompliance, defined as performance of less than 90% of prescribed exchanges, was found in 30% of patients during the first 6 months of PD. Patients who were noncompliant with prescribed exchanges at the start of PD had greater rates of death (P = 0.03), transfer to hemodialysis secondary to uremia (P < 0.05), hospitalization (P < 0.001), and days hospitalized (P < 0.001) compared with compliant patients. Delivered Kt/V was 18% less in noncompliant compared with compliant patients (2.1 versus 2.57; P = 0.007). Serial evaluations of compliance in 53 patients showed that 72% were consistently compliant, 2% were consistently noncompliant, 15% were noncompliant at the beginning of PD but became compliant at follow-up, and 11% were intermittently noncompliant. The likelihood of future compliance in a patient compliant at the first home visit was 88%. Patients who were independent with their dialysis exchanges were more likely to be noncompliant (27%) than patients dependent on someone else to perform their dialysis (8%; P = 0.05). Serial 24 hour creatinine excretion was not a useful method to determine compliance. We recommend a home visit during the first 6 months of PD to determine compliance. Those found compliant probably do not need repeated evaluations, whereas noncompliant patients should be reevaluated in a few months. Involving another person in the dialysis might relieve some of the burden on patients who may be initially unable to cope with home dialysis. Identification of noncompliant patients and awareness of risk factors should reduce noncompliance and improve patient outcomes.