We have conducted genetic screens for period length mutants in Arabidopsis using a transgenic bioluminescence phenotype. This screen identified mutations at a locus, ZEITLUPE (ZTL), that lengthen the free-running period of clock-controlled gene transcription and cell expansion, and alter the timing of the daylength-dependent transition from vegetative to floral development. Map-based cloning of ZTL identified a novel 609 amino acid polypeptide consisting of an amino-terminal PAS domain, an F box and six carboxy-terminal kelch repeats. The PAS region is highly similar to the PAS domain of the Arabidopsis blue-light receptor NPH1, and the Neurospora circadian-associated protein WHITE COLLAR-1 (WC-1). The striking fluence rate-dependent effect of the ztl mutations suggests that ZTL plays a primary role in the photocontrol of circadian period in higher plants.