The Medicare Alzheimer Disease Demonstration tested a case management and community care benefit for persons with dementia. The demonstration produced statistically but not clinically significant reductions in caregiver burden and depression. It increased access to community-based long-term care services but did not affect the level of services used. It did not reduce informal caregiver hours spent helping people with dementia. It produced statistically significant but not budget-neutral reductions in Medicare expenditures in that the degree of reduction in regular Medicare expenditures was not enough to offset the added demonstration costs. It did not reduce rates of nursing home placement. Informal care networks providing care to demented enrollees were generally able to function effectively, regardless of whether a professional case manager was involved or whether a long-term care benefit was available.