Genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) have shown potential for bioremediation applications in soil, groundwater, and activated sludge environments, exhibiting enhanced degradative capabilities encompassing a wide range of chemical contaminants. However, the vast majority of studies pertaining to genetically engineered microbial bioremediation are supported by laboratory-based experimental data. In general, relatively few examples of GEM applications in environmental ecosystems exist. Unfortunately, the only manner in which to fully address the competence of GEMs in bioremediation efforts is through long-term field release studies. It is therefore essential that field studies be performed to acquire the requisite information for determining the overall effectiveness and risks associated with GEM introduction into natural ecosystems.