Objective: To evaluate RA-1, a standardized plant extract formulation, traditionally considered a safe, effective antiarthritic in the Asian-Indian Ayurvedic medicinal system.
Methods: One hundred eighty-two patients with active-on-chronic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) participated in a 16 week randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel efficacy clinical drug trial in Pune, India. Tenderness, pain, swelling, and several other efficacy measures were assessed by (1) ACR core set 20% and 50% improvement; (2) ACR 20% improvement response. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed; p<0.05 considered significant.
Results: Seventeen patients withdrew (active = 9; placebo = 8); none withdrew due to drug toxicity. An unprecedented placebo response (often p<0.001 in within-group change) was observed. The active RA-1 group remained numerically superior at all evaluation timepoints. RA-1 demonstrated few significant differences: (1) increased proportion with 50% reduction in swollen joint count (95% CI approximately 1.52, 29.90) and swollen joint score (95% CI approximately 0.91, 28.73); (2) reduced rheumatoid factor (95% CI approximately -303.7, -2.72); 39% in the RA-1 group versus 30% placebo showed ACR 20% improvement (95% CI approximately -5.48, 24.59). Only minor side effects were seen, with no significant differences by treatment group.
Conclusion: In a trial with sufficient power, RA-1 revealed efficacy that was not significantly superior to the strong placebo response, except for improvement in joint swelling. Further, the effect on RF and good safety profile led to an open label phase.