The Swedish Hip Register has defined the epidemiology of total hip replacement in Sweden. Most hip implants are fully cemented. Serious complications and rates of revision have declined significantly despite an increasing number of patients at risk. During the past 5 years, only 8-9% of hip replacements are revisions. Aseptic loosening with or without osteolysis is the major problem and constitutes 71% of the revisions, but the incidence had decreased three times during the past 15 years to less than 3% at 10 years. The effectiveness of the surgical technique is the most important factor for reducing the risk of revision because of aseptic loosening, but choice of implant is also important. In practice, total hip replacement in Sweden has improved, as judged by information from this Register about individualized patient risks, implant safety, and the greater efficacy of surgical and cementing techniques.