The skull size and shape were osteometrically examined in the four species of the tree shrews (Tupaia tana, T. javanica, T. minor and T. dorsalis). We suggest that the skull characters were affected by the species specific behavior and terrestrial, arbo-terrestrial and arboreal life, among the genus Tupaia. The neurocranium was laterally narrower in the braincase area, and the splanchnocranium was longer only on dorsal side in T. tana, and these characters were opposite to T. minor. The principal component analysis confirmed the obviously separated clusters among T. tana, T. javanica and T. minor, affected by the adaptation for each behavior. T. dorsalis was considered as terrestrial species from the results of proportion analysis and the principal component analysis.