Rotational profile of the lower extremity and foot progression angle: computerized tomographic examination of 50 male adults

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2000;120(5-6):255-8. doi: 10.1007/s004020050459.


Acetabular, femoral and tibial torsion of 50 normal adult male subjects were measured by computerized tomography and the relationship between these angles and foot-progression angle was examined. The mean acetabular anteversion was 15.6 degrees on the right and 15.8 degrees on the left, (range 3 degrees-30 degrees). The mean femoral torsion was 6.5 degrees on the right and 5.8 degrees on the left (range 14 degrees-28 degrees). The mean tibiofibular torsion was 30.9 degrees on the right and 29.1 degrees on the left (range 16 degrees-50 degrees). Although the normal range of torsional measurements of the lower extremity was very broad, subjects usually had out-toeing, with a mean foot-progression angle of 13.7 degrees on the right and 13.0 degrees on the left (range 6 degrees-21 degrees). No correlation was detected on the rotation between different levels of the lower limb. No difference was detected in the lower extremity rotational profile between right and left sides.

MeSH terms

  • Acetabulum / diagnostic imaging*
  • Adult
  • Bone Malalignment / diagnostic imaging*
  • Femur / diagnostic imaging*
  • Foot / diagnostic imaging*
  • Gait / physiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Radiography
  • Reference Values
  • Risk Factors
  • Tibia / diagnostic imaging*
  • Torsion Abnormality