Somatic mutations of the APC gene in primary breast cancers

Am J Pathol. 2000 Jun;156(6):1997-2005. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9440(10)65072-9.


APC gene mutations play an important role in the initiation step of colorectal carcinogenesis in both familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients and non-FAP patients. Although the APC gene is expressed in most tissues, including the lung, liver, kidney, and mammary gland, its somatic mutations have rarely been found in primary tumors affecting these organs. We have developed a sensitive yeast-based assay for screening almost the entire coding region of the APC gene. By this method, we have been able to detect somatic mutations of the APC gene in 57% of colorectal cancers and none in non-small cell lung cancers. Interestingly, the assay detected somatic APC gene mutations in 18% of breast cancers, in which APC gene mutation was previously considered rare. In the breast cancers, most of the APC mutations were distributed outside the mutation cluster region that has been advocated for colorectal cancers. We also noted a difference in the mutation pattern of the APC between colorectal and breast cancers. In colorectal cancers, all base substitutions were observed at C residues (5 of 5), whereas in breast cancers the majority of them were found at G residues (4 of 5). Furthermore, APC mutations were observed at a significantly high frequency in advanced stages of primary breast cancers (TNM classification, P < 0.05; T category, P < 0.01). Our data suggest that the etiology of the APC mutations and their biological role in carcinogenesis may differ between colorectal and breast cancers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Colonic Neoplasms / genetics
  • Female
  • Genes, APC / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Methods
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation* / genetics
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Yeasts