In this study we describe the isolation and characterisation of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) gene from the teleost Fugu rubripes. The gene has a relatively simple structure, compared with tetrapod PTHrP genes, composed of three exons and two introns, encompassing 2.25kb of genomic DNA. The gene encodes a protein of 163 amino acids, with a putative signal peptide of 37 amino acids and a mature peptide of 126 amino acids. The overall homology with known tetrapod PTHrP proteins is low (36%), with a novel sequence inserted between positions 38 and 65, the absence of the conserved pentapeptide (TRSAW) and shortened C-terminal domain. The N-terminus shows greater conservation (62%), suggesting that it may have a hypercalcaemic function similar to that of tetrapod PTHrP. In situ localisation and RT-PCR have demonstrated the presence of PTHrP in a wide range of tissues with varying levels of expression. Sequence scanning of overlapping cosmids has identified three additional genes, TMPO, LDHB and KCNA1, which map to human chromosome 12, with the latter two mapping to 12p12-11.2. PTHrP in human also maps to this chromosome 12 sub-region, thus demonstrating conservation of synteny between human and Fugu.