Distribution of Atr protein in primary spermatocytes of a mouse chromosomal mutant: a comparison of preparation techniques

Chromosoma. 2000;109(1-2):139-47. doi: 10.1007/s004120050422.


In this study, we examined the suitability of a three dimensional preparation technique for studying chromosome behaviour in the first meiotic prophase in the mouse chromosomal mutant T(1;13)H/T(1;13)Wa. To preserve cellular shape, primary spermatocytes were encapsulated in a fibrin clot. Conventionally sedimented prophase nuclei served as controls. Axial elements and lateral synaptonemal complex components were subsequently stained by immunofluorescence and the presence of axial elements at the pachytene stage was highlighted with indirect immunofluorescence against the Atr protein. We compared the distribution of Atr signal in the fibrin-embedded spermatocytes with surface-spread preparations and immunohistochemically stained histological sections of seminiferous tubules. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridisation of the mouse minor satellite DNA was done on fibrin-embedded spermatocytes. The Atr signal is most conspicuous in fibrin-embedded nuclei on unpaired axial elements during pachytene, both for sex chromosomal and for autosomal segments, and expanding from these elements into the surrounding chromatin. Both spread and encapsulated zygotene nuclei with extended axial element formation proved to be positive for Atr. Mid- to late zygotene nuclei were devoid of 3,3'-diaminodibenzene deposition in the histological sections. Highlighting the unpaired axial elements in the small heteromorphic 1(13)H;1(13)Wa bivalent with an Atr signal enabled meiotic analysis of this bivalent to be carried out in a three-dimensional context. Thus, proximity of this bivalent with the sex chromosomes is found more often in three-dimensional preparations than in spread preparations. Furthermore, the development of the Atr signal over the sex chromosomes as pachytene proceeds helps in substaging of this long and heterogeneous meiotic phase, in sedimented but especially in fibrin-encapsulated nuclei.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis*
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure
  • Chromosomes / metabolism
  • Chromosomes / ultrastructure*
  • DNA, Satellite / analysis
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Fertility
  • Fibrin / metabolism
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
  • Histocytological Preparation Techniques*
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Male
  • Meiosis
  • Mice
  • Mice, Mutant Strains
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases*
  • Seminiferous Epithelium / cytology
  • Seminiferous Epithelium / metabolism
  • Spermatocytes / metabolism*
  • Spermatocytes / ultrastructure
  • Synaptonemal Complex
  • X Chromosome / metabolism
  • X Chromosome / ultrastructure
  • Y Chromosome / metabolism
  • Y Chromosome / ultrastructure


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA, Satellite
  • Fibrin
  • Atr protein, mouse
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases