Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a cell surface glycoprotein that is expressed by prostate epithelial cells. PSMA-specific monoclonal antibodies have been utilized to characterize the biologic function and in vivo biodistribution of PSMA. PSMA is an attractive target protein for monoclonal antibody directed imaging or therapeutics for prostate cancer since its expression is relatively restricted to prostate epithelial cells and is over-expressed in prostate cancer, including in advanced stages. Currently, clinical usage of PSMA specific monoclonal antibodies has been limited to diagnostic immunohistochemistry and imaging of patients with prostate cancer. Novel applications for these antibodies will be discussed.