The human and mouse Period1 genes: five well-conserved E-boxes additively contribute to the enhancement of mPer1 transcription

Genomics. 2000 May 1;65(3):224-33. doi: 10.1006/geno.2000.6166.


The clock gene, Period1, from human and mouse was sequenced and characterized. Both human PERIOD1 (human PER1) and mouse Period1 (mouse Per1) consisted of 23 exons spanning approximately 16 kb, and their structures showed strong similarity to each other. For example, six highly conserved regions were identified in the 5' upstream sequences. These conserved segments exhibited 77-88% identity and possessed several potential regulatory elements including five E-boxes (the binding site of the CLOCK-BMAL1 complex) and four cyclic AMP response elements. Transient transfection assays using a mPer1-luciferase fusion gene revealed that each of the conserved E-boxes additively functions as an enhancer for the transactivation of mPer1 by mCLOCK and mBMAL1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • ARNTL Transcription Factors
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Binding Sites / genetics
  • CLOCK Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Circadian Rhythm / genetics
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Proteins / chemistry
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Period Circadian Proteins
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Response Elements
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic*


  • ARNTL Transcription Factors
  • ARNTL protein, human
  • Arntl protein, mouse
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • PER1 protein, human
  • Per1 protein, mouse
  • Period Circadian Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cyclic AMP
  • CLOCK Proteins
  • CLOCK protein, human
  • Clock protein, mouse

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AB030817
  • GENBANK/AB030818