Mouse type-2 retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH2): genomic organization, tissue-dependent expression, chromosome assignment and comparison to other types

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 21;1492(1):289-93. doi: 10.1016/s0167-4781(00)00108-1.


Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) isozymes catalyze the formation of an essential developmental modulator, retinoic acid. We determined the structural organization of mouse type-2 Raldh2 by isolation of overlapping genomic DNA clones from a phage library. The gene consists of 14 exons spanning more than 70 kb of genomic DNA. It was localized to mouse chromosome 6. Northern blot analysis revealed testis-specific expression. The RALDH genes belong to the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) multi-gene family. Three types of RALDH genes (e.g. human ALDH1/mouse Ahd2/rat RalDH(I), human ALDH11/mouse Raldh2/rat RalDH(II) and human ALDH6) are highly conserved during evolution, sharing about 70% identity at the amino acid level between any two gene types and 90% identity between any two mammalian genes of the same type. Different RALDH types show specific tissue and developmental expression patterns, suggesting (i) a regulatory mechanism of retinoic acid synthesis via different promoters of RALDH genes, and (ii) distinctive biological roles of different isozymes in embryogenesis and organogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / classification
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / genetics*
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome Mapping*
  • Chromosomes
  • DNA / analysis
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*
  • Genome
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Retinal Dehydrogenase
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Tissue Distribution


  • DNA
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases
  • Retinal Dehydrogenase