Children with conditions requiring neonatal intensive care impose a financial burden on health services, on families and carers, and on society generally. A systematic review of the literature identified 81 studies that conducted primary research on the cost of services as a result of conditions requiring neonatal intensive care. The majority of studies estimated costs incurred during the initial hospital stay. Relatively few studies considered health service costs following discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit, costs to other sectors of the economy or costs to families and carers. It is important that these costs are considered more fully.
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