Prevalence and determinants of microalbuminuria in high-risk diabetic and nondiabetic patients in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study. The HOPE Study Investigators

Diabetes Care. 2000 Apr;23 Suppl 2:B35-9.


Objective: To describe the characteristics of diabetic and nondiabetic participants in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study who are at high risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) disease and who have microalbuminuria (MA), and to identify the key determinants of MA in these two groups.

Research design and methods: Albuminuria was measured in 97% of patients enrolled in the HOPE Study as part of the MICRO-HOPE (MA, CV, and Renal Outcomes in HOPE) substudy. Baseline clinical characteristics of diabetic and nondiabetic participants with MA were recorded, and the univariate and multivariate relationship between these characteristics and the presence of MA was estimated for both groups.

Results: Baseline urinary albumin determinations were available in 3,574 (97.8%) diabetic participants and 5,708 (97.0%) nondiabetic participants. MA was detected in 1,151 (32.2%) diabetic participants and 837 (14.7%) nondiabetic participants. Age, waist-to-hip ratio, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, vascular disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy were independent determinants of MA in all participants. In diabetic participants, the odds of MA increased 16% for every 10.4 years of diabetes duration, and increased 8% for every 0.9% increase in glycated hemoglobin (assuming a GHb assay with an upper limit of 6% in the nondiabetic range).

Conclusions: MA is independently associated with several risk factors for CV and renal disease in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals at high risk for CV disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Albuminuria / complications
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology*
  • Body Constitution
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Diabetes Complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus / urine*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / complications
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Vascular Diseases / complications


  • Insulin