Isolation and characterization of the murine cardiotrophin-1 gene: expression and norepinephrine-induced transcriptional activation

J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 Jul;32(7):1275-84. doi: 10.1006/jmcc.2000.1161.


Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a novel cytokine capable of inducing hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes and belongs to the interleukin-6 family that exert their biological effects through gp130. To clarify the involvement and pathophysiological role of CT-1 in myocardial diseases, it is important to characterize the regulation of CT-1 gene expression. In this study, we isolated and characterized the mouse CT-1 gene and studied the expression of CT-1 mRNA under norepinephrine (NE) stimulation. The mouse CT-1 gene constitutes 5.4 kilobases (kb) in length and consists of three exons and two introns. When nucleotide sequences of the coding regions of exons were compared with those of human, exon 1, 2 and 3 share 96%, 84% and 81% homology, respectively. The 2.2 kb of 5; flanking lesion of the mouse CT-1 gene contains a variety of transcription factor binding motif (e.g. CREB, MyoD, NF-IL6, Nkx2.5, GATA). Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis demonstrated that the mouse CT-1 gene was located on chromosome 7F3. The expression of CT-1 mRNA in cardiac myocytes was markedly augmented by NE stimulation, both in vivo and in vitro. Promoter analysis using deletion constructs of the CT-1 gene indicated that the NE responsive element located between -2174/-1540 and this region contained the cAMP responsive element (CRE). Electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays showed enhanced binding activity to the CRE motif in the nuclear extracts from NE-stimulated cardiac myocytes. These studies indicate that CT-1 is abundantly expressed in the heart and that the CRE is a possible cis -acting element of the CT-1 gene under NE-stimulation. These data suggest that the CT-1 gene expression is regulated, at least partially, by transcriptional machinery.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Cell Nucleus / drug effects
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis*
  • Cytokines / genetics*
  • Genes, Regulator / genetics
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Luciferases
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Models, Genetic
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Norepinephrine / pharmacology*
  • Plasmids
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protein Binding
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Time Factors
  • Transcriptional Activation / drug effects*


  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
  • Cytokines
  • cardiotrophin 1
  • Luciferases
  • Norepinephrine